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Latest Highest Rated. Title: Fuel Cells 1 Fuel Cells The long awaited arrival 2 Fuel cells have been just 10 more years away from everyday use over 50 years Several problems have contributed to this Materials Hydrogen storage safety Economics Recent advances in engineered materials have made fuel cells a viable design option Proton exchange membranes PEM Composite and nanotechnology Fuel cell technology is being used today Busses, motorcycles, remotely operated aircraft Lawnmowers, laptops, cameras Home power generation units up to 10 KW 3 Fuel cells are a power source that is becoming increasingly desirable Many designs require a power source Realize the benefits and the costs Be aware of emerging technologies 4 So what exactly is a fuel cell?
Very little flow is needed Now turn off the valve and wait 1 min What happens? Why or why not? Calculate the mass of Pt in the PEM assume 0. Whether your application is business, how-to, education, medicine, school, church, sales, marketing, online training or just for fun, PowerShow. And, best of all, most of its cool features are free and easy to use.
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That's all free as well!Will it contribute to energy independence? Stephen Cohen and Nathan Bonnett scohen gmail.
Fuel Cell PowerPoint PPT Presentations
What is a Fuel Cell? A Fuel Cell is an electrochemical device that combines hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, with water and heat as its by-product.
Why is Fuel Cell Technology Important? Since conversion of the fuel to energy takes place via an electrochemical process, not combustion It is a clean, quiet and highly efficient process- two to three times more efficient than fuel burning. How does a Fuel Cell work? It operates similarly to a battery, but it does not run down nor does it require recharging As long as fuel is supplied, a Fuel Cell will produce both energy and heat.
A Fuel Cell consists of two catalyst coated electrodes surrounding an electrolyte One electrode is an anode and the other is a cathode. The process begins when Hydrogen molecules enter the anode The catalyst coating separates hydrogens negatively charged electrons from the positively charged protons. The electrolyte allows the protons to pass through to the cathode, but not the electrons Instead the electrons are directed through an external circuit which creates electrical current.
While the electrons pass through the external circuit, oxygen molecules pass through the cathode There the oxygen and the protons combine with the electrons after they have passed through the external circuit When the oxygen and the protons combine with the electrons it produces water and heat.
Individual fuel cells can then be placed in a series to form a fuel cell stack The stack can be used in a system to power a vehicle or to provide stationary power to a building. Major Types of Fuel Cells In general all fuel cells have the same basic configuration - an electrolyte and two electrodes Different types of fuel cells are classified by the kind of electrolyte used The type of electrolyte used determines the kind of chemical reactions that take place and the temperature range of operation.
Major Types of Fuel Cells Proton Exchange Membrane PEM This is the leading cell type for passenger car application Uses a polymer membrane as the electrolyte Operates at a relatively low temperature, about degrees Has a high power density, can vary its output quickly and is suited for applications where quick startup is required making it popular for automobiles Sensitive to fuel impurities.
Major Types of Fuel Cells Molten Carbonate Promises high fuel-to-electricity efficiency and the ability to utilize coal based fuels Uses an electrolyte composed of a molten carbonate salt mixture Require carbon dioxide and oxygen to be delivered to the cathode Operates at extremely high temperatures degrees Primarily targeted for use as electric utility applications Have been operated on hydrogen, carbon monoxide, natural gas, propane, landfill gas, marine diesel and simulated coal gasification products.
Major Types of Fuel Cells Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Because of the extreme high temperatures, nonprecious metals can be used as catalysts at the anode and cathode which helps reduces cost Disadvantage is durability The high temperature required and the corrosive electrolyte accelerate breakdown and corrosion inside the fuel cell.Mhw mouse
Major Types of Fuel Cells Alkaline Fuel Cell Requires pure hydrogen and oxygen because it is very susceptible to carbon contamination Purification process of the hydrogen and oxygen is costly Susceptibility to poisoning affects cells lifetime which also affects the cost.
Major Types of Fuel Cells Regenerative Fuel Cells Currently researched by NASA This type of fuel cell involves a closed loop form of power generation Uses solar energy to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen Hydrogen and oxygen are fed into the fuel cell generating electricity, heat and water The water byproduct is then recirculated back to the solar-powered electrolyser beginning the process again.
Importance of Hydrogen Fuel Cells require highly purified hydrogen as a fuel Researchers are developing a wide range of technologies to produce hydrogen economically from a variety of resources in environmentally friendly ways.
Importance of Hydrogen Hydrogen is a secondary energy resource, meaning it must be made from another fuel Hydrogen can be produced from a wide variety of energy resources including: Fossil fuels, such as natural gas and coal Nuclear energy Renewable resources, such as solar,water, wind and biomass.
Hydrogen Production The biggest challenge regarding hydrogen production is the cost Reducing the cost of hydrogen production so as to compete in the transportation sector with conventional fuels on a per-mile basis is a significant hurdle to Fuel Cells success in the commercial marketplace. Hydrogen Production Gasification Process in which coal or biomass is converted into gaseous components by applying heat under pressure and in the presence of steam A subsequent series of chemical reactions produces a synthesis gas which reacts with steam to produce more hydrogen that can be separated.
Hydrogen Production Renewable Liquid Reforming Biomass is processed to make renewable liquid fuels, such as ethanol or bio-oil, that are then reacted with high-temperature steam to produce hydrogen This process is very similar to reforming natural gas. Hydrogen Production Electrolytic Processes Electrolytic processes use an electric current to split water into hydrogen and oxygen The electricity required can be generated by using renewable energy technologies such as wind, solar, geothermal and hydroelectric power.
Hydrogen Production Photolytic Processes Uses light energy to split water into hydrogen and oxygen These processes are in the very early stages of research but offer the possibility of hydrogen production which is cost effective and has a low environmental impact. Hydrogen Production Auto manufacturers have worked on developing technology that would allow fuel cell cars to continue using gasoline A reformer on the fuel cell car would convert the gasoline to hydrogen onboard the automobile Funding for this technology has been pulled due to unsatisfactory efficiency.
How will the hydrogen be stored?Copy embed code:.
Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed. WordPress Embed Customize Embed. URL: Copy. Do you like it?? Fuel cells combine hydrogen and oxygen electrochemically to produce electricity. The only by-products are water and useful heat.
The first fuel cell was built in by Sir William Grove, a lawyer and gentleman scientist. Serious interest in the fuel cell as a practical generator did not begin until the 's, when the U.
Fuel cells furnished power for the Gemini and Apollo spacecraft, and still provide electricity and water for the space shuttle. Conducts the electrons that are freed from the hydrogen molecules so that they can be used in an external circuit. Etched channels disperse hydrogen gas over the surface of catalyst. Cathode Positive post of the fuel cell Etched channels distribute oxygen to the surface of the catalyst. Conducts electrons back from the external circuit to the catalyst Recombine with the hydrogen ions and oxygen to form water.Coursera week 2 assignment answers
Electrolyte Proton exchange membrane. Specially treated material, only conducts positively charged ions.
Introduction to Fuel Cell Applications
Membrane blocks electrons. Catalyst Special material that facilitates reaction of oxygen and hydrogen Usually platinum powder very thinly coated onto carbon paper or cloth. Follow us on:. Go to Application.Reinventing the fuel cell: Dr. Yushan Yan at TEDxUD
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Dislike it 0.The first commercial use of fuel cells came more than a century later in NASA space programs to generate power for satellites and space capsules. Since then, fuel cells have been used in many other applications. Fuel cells are used for primary and backup power for commercial, industrial and residential buildings and in remote or inaccessible areas. They are also used to power fuel cell vehicles, including forklifts, automobiles, buses, boats, motorcycles and submarines.
One of the most promising devices is the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell. SOFC is a device that generates electricity directly from oxidizing a fuel. The main issue of SOFC is the high operating temperature that influence negatively the performance of the device.
Fuel cells are different from batteries in requiring a continuous source of fuel and oxygen usually from air to sustain the chemical reaction, whereas in a battery the chemical energy comes from chemicals already present in the battery.
A solid oxide fuel cell is a device that generates electricity directly from oxidizing a fuel it generates energy based on a chemical relation. It has been used in the U. The AFC is very susceptible to contamination, so it requires pure hydrogen and oxygen. It is also very expensive, so this type of fuel cell is unlikely to be commercialized.
It operates at a higher temperature than PEM fuel cells, so it has a longer warm-up time. This makes it unsuitable for use in cars. They operate at 1, F Cso they also generate steam that can be used to generate more power. They have a lower operating temperature than the SOFC, which means they don't need such exotic materials. This makes the design a little less expensive.
I had the chance to do a study of how SOFC works, the different designs and Applications and the disadvantages. This project is more of a research project. Jazouli - www. Learn more about Scribd Membership Home.
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Fuel Cells - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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WordPress Embed Customize Embed. URL: Copy. Presentation Description No description available. The chemical energy of a fuel is converted to electricity by electrochemical means.
Figure shows the schematic of a fuel cell. The fuel, typically hydrogen, is sent to the anode and oxygen from air is sent to the cathode. The electrons generated at the anode due to dissociation of hydrogen pass through an external circuit to the cathode, thereby generating electricity. At the cathode, the hydrogen ion, electron, and oxygen react to form water. Several such cells are stacked in series to get the required power output. How it is work?
In principle, a fuel cell operates like a battery. Unlike a battery, a fuel cell does not run down or require recharging. It will produce energy in the form of electricity and heat as long as fuel is supplied.
A fuel cell consists of two electrodes sandwiched around an electrolyte. Oxygen passes over one electrode and hydrogen over the other, generating electricity, water and heat. Hydrogen fuel is fed into the "anode" of the fuel cell. Oxygen or air enters the fuel cell through the cathode. Encouraged by a catalyst, the hydrogen atom splits into a proton and an electron, which take different paths to the cathode.
The proton passes through the electrolyte. The electrons create a separate current that can be utilized before they return to the cathode, to be reunited with the hydrogen and oxygen in a molecule of water. A fuel cell system which includes a "fuel reformer" can utilize the hydrogen from any hydrocarbon fuel - from natural gas to methanol, and even gasoline.
Several universities and research organizations are involved in the areas of fuel cells, reformers,and hydrogen storage. In the system developed by the Indian Space Research Center, the fuel cells are expected to produce 80 kilowatts of electric power, using hydrogen from eight high-pressure bottles stored on top of the bus.
The central government has said it wants to have 1 million hydrogen-fueled vehicles on the road by The Indian Space Research Organization said it has developed hydrogen fuel cells using the technology perfected during its recent mission to the moon.
Finally, hydrogen-powered fuel cells, which emit only clean water and electricity, may become the ultimate power source of the 21st century. The ultimate eco fuel will combine high efficiency with minimal environmental impact.
It must be available in sufficient quantities, and it must be possible to harness and refine economically. Fuel cell technology is becoming increasingly popular in power generation and automotive applications.
Advantages include zero emissions and high efficiency. The most common fuel used in a fuel cell is hydrogen Fuel cell cars with I. Excellent part load characteristics.Flatron f engine
Zero emission. Long operating period between failures. No rotating parts in the main hard ware components. Negligible noise pollution. Fuel storage problem. Less Refueling station.Toggle navigation.
Help Preferences Sign up Log in. Featured Presentations. Fuel Cell Engineering pres. Ajay K. The operation of such a cell would have diverse applications in many sciences Membrane - Allows for H passage. Often Platinum Exposed to air. Whole Ecoli cells PEB solution.
Prolonged power output at 24 hrs Automotive fuel cell market Fuel Cell Vehicle market size to exceed 14, units by - Automotive fuel cell market size was estimated at over 5, units inand is expected to grow at a CAGR of Growing consciousness regarding harmful emissions from gasoline and conventional fuel vehicles is expected to drive the industry over the forecast period.
Automotive fuel cell market size was estimated at over 5, units inand is expected to grow at a CAGR of British Columbia, Canada. CNG dual fuel.
fuel cells ppt
Tourist Boat Uses of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Fuel cell Technology - fuel cell Grove s invention was based on idea of reverse Global Fuel Cell Market - The global fuel cell market will grow by The global fuel cell market will grow by Residential Power Units There are few residential fuel cell power units on the market but many designs are undergoing testing Fuel Cell Basics - Electrolysis in Fuel Cells - Busses, motorcycles, remotely operated aircraft.
Lawnmowers, laptops, cameras Toyota, Honda. Auto manufacturers. Consumer products. Fuel cells power cameras Busses, motorcycles, remotely operated aircraft.
Herb Hess Dr.Fuel cells have been researched and developed for use in several applications since the early 's. Fuel cells can be used for portable, backup, transportation, and stationary power applications.
This article briefly describes some of these uses for fuel cells. Portable fuel cells are lightweight, long-lasting, portable power sources that prolong the amount of time a device can be used without recharging. In comparison, secondary rechargeable batteries have battery charger systems that consist of AC chargers that require an outlet to be charged or DC chargers that will recharge your batteries from other batteries. Rechargeable batteries are not practical for certain portable and military electronic applications because they can be heavy and not meet the power requirements.
Some portable fuel cell applications include laptops, cellular phones, power tools, military equipment, battery chargers, unattended sensors, and unmanned aerial and underwater vehicles. A notable difference between rechargeable batteries and fuel cells is that a fuel cell needs a continuous supply of fuel. Some fuel types that have been used with fuel cells include metal hydrides, methanol, formic acid, ethanol, and of course, hydrogen.
For portable fuel cells, methanol and ethanol can be supplied to the fuel cell as fuel or a fuel reformer can also be attached to the fuel cell package. Backup power systems provide power when the primary power source is disrupted. Fuel cells used for backup power come in many sizes and types and typically use hydrogen as their fuel.
Backup fuel cells can be commercialized more quickly than other fuel cells because they do not depend on upon the implementation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Some backup power applications include computer systems, manufacturing facilities, homes, and utility substations. The PEM fuel cell with compressed hydrogen fuel is the most popular fuel cell type used for backup power applications. There are many fuel options available such as compressed hydrogen, liquid hydrogen, propane, natural gas as well as many other fuel types.
An electrolyzer system is a good option for backup power applications because it can produce hydrogen on demand. The electrolyzer can be used with electricity generated by solar panels, a wind source, a nuclear source or electricity generated by the local power company. Fuel cells can be used for many transportation applications including automobiles, buses, utility vehicles, and scooters and bicycles. Many fuel cell demonstration vehicles have been created for each of these vehicle types.
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